Emerging technologies continually provide for improved measurements of complex flow phenomena. Techniques such as particle-image velocimetry and Doppler-based velocimetry yield detailed flow velocity measurements at scales needed in practical aerospace applications. Novel implementation of conventional approaches such as sonic anemometry and physical sensors have been enabled by new understanding gained from advanced instrumentation simulations. In this program, we seek fundamental development that advances the state-of-the-art for applied instrumentation approaches. The developments impact performance, efficiency and noise technologies and propulsion, power and renewable energy technologies.